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猪细小病毒

【字体:  】【颜色: 绿  

Porcine Parvovirus (PPV)

 


     Porcine Parvovirus Infection (PPV) is the most common and important cause of infectious
infertility. Porcine parvovirus is a fairly tough virus that multiplies normally in the intestine of the pig without causing clinical signs. It is world-wide in its distribution.
    猪细小病毒感染是引起猪传染性繁殖障碍的最普遍和最重要的原因。猪细小病毒是一种相对顽固的病毒,病毒在猪的肠道内繁殖,但不表现临床症状。

 If you test for it in your pig herd it is almost certain it will be present. Whereas most viruses do not survive outside the host for any great period of time PPV is unusual in that it can persist outside the pig for many months and it is resistant to most disinfectants. This perhaps explains why it is so widespread and so difficult to remove from the pig environment.

如果你检查你的猪群中是否存在猪细小病毒,几乎可以肯定都是阳性。虽然其他病毒在宿主体外不能长时间存活,但猪细小病毒却能在体外存活数月,而且对多数消毒剂不敏感。这也许解释了猪细小病毒分布广泛和很难从养猪环境中根除的原因。

To understand the role of PPV in reproduction it is important to realize that reproductive infection usually occurs without disease, but sometimes there is infection with reproductive disease. PPV is transmitted either by mouth or through the nose passing into the intestine where it multiplies and is passed out in faeces. If a pig becomes infected for the first time when it is not pregnant there are no clinical signs.

要明了猪细小病毒对猪生殖系统的影响,重要的是要认识到猪生殖系统感染细小病毒常常发生,但是猪却不一定发病;但有些时候细小病毒感染一起繁殖系统疾病。猪细小病毒是通过口或鼻腔传到肠道,然后在肠道内进行复制,并通过粪便排毒。如果母猪在怀孕之前感染猪细小病毒,通常没有临床症状。

However, if the animal is pregnant and exposed for the first time in the first 55 days or so of pregnancy, the virus crosses the placenta killing piglets selectively. If the foetus is infected at less than 35 days of age, before there has been an opportunity for bone development, death results, followed by complete absorption and ultimately a small litter is born. If infection takes place between 30 and 55 days of pregnancy the foetuses die and they become mummified. Do not assume that all mummified pigs are caused by PPV infection.

但是如果母猪在怀孕后第一次感染猪细小病毒,而且感染发生在怀孕后的最初55天内,病毒将会穿过胎盘,选择性地杀死小猪。如果胚胎在35天之前感染猪细小病毒会发生胚胎死亡,由于此时胎儿的骨骼尚未发育完全,死胎随后将被完全吸收。结果会导致产仔数减少。如果病毒感染发生在怀孕后的3055天之间,产死胎和木乃伊胎。不要认为所有的木乃伊胎都是由猪细小病毒感染引起的。

It takes 10-14 days from first infection for PPV to reach the piglets inside the uterus. From 70 days of age the immune system of the piglet has started to develop and it can therefore respond and protect itself from the virus. Thus if pregnant animals are infected for the first time after approximately 55 days of pregnancy there will be little evidence of disease. This is quite different to PRRS infection, which kills the foetus only after 70 days of age inside the womb and therefore very late mummified pigs are seen in this disease. Once inside the womb PPV spreads slowly from one foetus to another and as a result the sizes of mummified pigs will vary within the litter.

从最初的母猪感染细小病毒,病毒大约需要1014天感染到子宫内的小猪。在母猪妊娠70天的胎儿的免疫系统已经开始发育,此时的胎儿可以产生免疫反应,能抵抗病毒。因此,如果怀孕母猪在孕后55天第一次感染猪细小病毒,一般很少有疾病的迹象。这一点和猪繁殖与呼吸综合征感染有很大不同,猪繁殖与呼吸综合征感染所造成的胎儿死亡只发生在70天以后的胎儿,所以猪繁殖与呼吸综合症感染只在晚期看到木乃伊胎。猪细小病毒在子宫从一个胎儿到另外一个胎儿的传播很慢,因此,猪细小病毒感染中,同一窝中木乃伊胎的大小有差别。

Clinical signs

临床症状

Acute outbreaks of disease

急性病例

Infection itself causes no clinical symptoms other than the presence of mummified pigs at farrowing. In acute outbreaks of disease the following occurs:

Small litters associated with embryo loss before 35 days

Mummified pigs of varying size, (30-160mm).

Increased numbers of stillbirths. These are associated with the delay in the farrowing mechanism which occurs because of the presence of the mummified piglet.

Abortions associated with PPV infection are uncommon.

There may be an increase in low birth weight piglets but neonatal deaths are not affected.

The acute disease episode often lasts for up to 8 weeks then wanes for 4-6 weeks, followed by smaller bouts of mummified pigs for a further 4-6 weeks.

The virus can take up to 4 months to infect all sows in a susceptible previously uninfected herd.

猪细小病毒感染对感染的猪只并不造成任何临床症状,只是在分娩时产木乃伊胎。在该病急性发作时有以下特征:由于胎儿在35天前感染所造成的损失,每窝的产仔数变小,

不同大小的木乃伊胎(30160毫米)

由于木乃伊胎的存在,造成分娩延迟引起死胎数量增加。

与猪细小病毒有关的流产很少见。

可能出生体重少的仔猪增多,但胎儿死亡不受影响。

疾病的急性发作往往持续长达8周,然后减弱为4-6周,其次是规模较小的几次木乃伊猪再4-6周。

在以前未感染过猪细小病毒的易感猪群,该病毒可能需要长达4个月来感染所有母猪。

 Sporadic disease in enzootic herds

猪群的地方流行性零星散发

This is seen in individual females which are infected for the first time. It is usually confined to gilts. In acute herd outbreaks of disease involving many animals, litter size is reduced with the percentage of litters totalling less than 9 increasing from about 10 up to 40%. The numbers of mummified pigs, particularly associated with small litters are elevated and sows not in-pig may increase from 2 to 6%. Sows found not in-pig are due to either total embryo absorption before 35 days or complete foetal death and a pseudo-pregnancy.

常见于初次感染的个体后备母猪。急性爆发猪细小病毒的畜群,产仔数少于9头的猪的比例从10%上升到40%。木乃伊胎的数量,尤其是产仔少的母猪产木乃伊胎的数量增加。 空怀母猪的数量增加26%空怀母猪主要是由于35天前的胚胎吸收和胎儿的死亡以及伪怀孕所造成。

 In some cases the sow reaches the point of farrowing with normal udder development, even to the extent of producing milk, but there are no live births. An injection of prostaglandin to bring about farrowing yields mummified pigs that have been present inside the womb. The above picture is only seen at this level in a susceptible herd, that is, with 50-70% of sero-negative breeding females. Such episodes are likely to occur in non-vaccinated herds every 3-4 years

在某些情况下,母猪到该分娩时,乳房发育正常,甚至到了产奶的程度,但最终没有活的仔猪产出。注射前列腺素促使母猪分娩,这种情况只是在易感猪群中看到,这里所指的易感猪群是指细小病毒血清阴性的猪只占5070 %的繁育母猪。这类流行在未接种疫苗的猪群有可能每34年发生一次

Immunity

免疫

PPV infection results in high antibody levels in the serum which persist for long periods. You should appreciate that such levels do not necessarily mean that there is or has been a reproductive problem or a higher level of protection. For example, a titre of 1:2 will be equally as protective as a titre of 1:80,000. Blood sampling all the sows in a herd on one occasion only indicates the percentage of animals that have been exposed to parvovirus at some previous period which gives you an idea of the overall breeding herd immunity or susceptibility. Once an animal has been exposed to PPV it remains immune for the rest of its life.

猪细小病毒的感染可以诱导猪产生高水平的血清抗体,该抗体可以维持很长时间。你应该明白,这样高水平的抗体并不一定意味着存在或已经有繁殖方面的问题或更高水平的保护。例如,滴度为12的抗体与滴度为1:80000的抗体可能具有同等的保护力。在某一时间对一个猪群的所有母猪进行采血化验的结果,只能提示在某一时期感染动物所占的百分比。给你提供一个大致的猪群的免疫力和易感性。一旦猪只接触猪细小病毒,猪只将终生获得免疫。

 From a practical standpoint the breeding herd may be in one of three phases.

Serologically negative. In this situation all females are highly susceptible to infection and reproductive failure. This is an unusual situation but can occur occasionally in small herds. In such herds if parvovirus is introduced there is a massive outbreak of reproductive disease: repeats, mummifications, not in pig and possibly a few abortions. Such herds should be vaccinated immediately.

Endemic infection. Here PPV is continually circulating and 50-90% of animals are immune. However infection can take place in the early to mid pregnancy period in any negative animals and therefore there is a variable amount of disease. This was the typical picture prior to the availability of vaccines in large non-vaccinated herd. Intermittent outbreaks of disease occur, particularly in gilts and second parity females. As viral activity increases, so does immunity across the herd. When there are large numbers of immune animals there is little infection and the herd immunity gradually drops as old immune sows are culled.

Disease in replacement gilts. This is common because at least 50% of gilts at point of mating may not have met PPV and therefore are susceptible. Up to a third of such animals may become infected in the first half of pregnancy resulting in reproductive failure.

从实践角度来考虑,一个繁殖猪群可能处于以下三种状态之一:

血清学阴性:在这种状态下,所有母猪对细小病毒都非常容易感染和发生繁殖障碍。这种情形不常见,但却时常在小猪群中发生,在这样的猪群中一旦引入猪细小病毒,将会大面积爆发猪的繁殖障碍疾病:母猪重复返情、产木乃伊胎、母猪空怀,有时可能还有零星的流产。对这样的猪群要立即进行免疫。

地方性传染:这种情况下,猪细小病毒在猪群中持续循环,5090%的猪只具有免疫力。但是在猪细小病毒阴性的猪只中,在怀孕的早期到中期都可能发生感染,从而有不确定数量的猪细小病毒疾病发生。

 Key points to parvovirus infection

猪细小病毒感染的要点

he virus is widespread throughout all pig populations but it may disappear in small herds (<100 sows).

猪细小病毒在所有大猪群普遍存在,但在小猪群会消失(少于100头母猪)

Infection is endemic (present all the time) in most pig units.

猪细小病毒感染在大多数猪舍呈地方流行

Once a pig is exposed there is a lifelong immunity.

一旦猪接触猪细小病毒,猪将获得终生免疫力。

Reproductive problems may appear every 3-4 years in a herd if vaccination is not carried out.

在没有免疫的猪群,由细小病毒引起的繁殖障碍可能每34年发生一次。

Parvovirus infection in a susceptible female can cause death of the embryo with absorption or death of the foetus with mummification.

易感母猪感染猪细小病毒会导致死胎和死胎吸收,或产木乃伊胎。

The major signs are therefore small litter sizes, mummified pigs of different sizes, and increases in pseudo-pregnancies and not-in-pigs

猪细小病毒感染的主要症状是产仔少,产不同大小的木乃伊胎,假孕和空怀母猪数量的增多。

Abortion due to PPV is uncommon.

由猪细小病毒所致的流产不常见。

Maternal immunity may persist up to 7 months of age but only in a few gilts. (This interferes with vaccine response).

母源免疫可以维持到7月龄,但只见于少数后备母猪(这些母源抗体会干扰免疫反应)

Up to 50% of gilts may be sero-negative at point of mating.

大约有50%的后备母猪在配种时是血清学阴性。

 Diagnosis

诊断

In the absence of any other signs of illness in the breeding females, PPV disease can be suspected by increases in mummified pigs and small litter sizes. The important features are disease and death in the embryo and foetus from approximately 15-70 days of pregnancy. The mummified pigs can be examined by fluorescent antibody test in the laboratory to confirm the infection. Serology will not help because many sows are positive and normal.

如果一个繁殖母猪群在没有任何其他疾病症状的情况下,持续发生母猪产木乃伊胎数量增加和每窝产仔量下降,应怀疑本病。猪细小病毒感染的重要特征是在怀孕后的1570天发生病胎、死胎。木乃伊胎可以通过在实验室荧光抗体实验来证实感染。血清学没有帮助,因为许多母猪都是阳性而且表现正常。

 Key points for recognising PPV disease

Small litters associated with variable sized mummified pigs occurring mainly in unvaccinated gilts or gilts vaccinated while still protected by maternal antibody.

Increased percentage of repeats.

No other signs of ill health in the breeding female or in individual affected animals.

Some gilts or sows progress to the point of farrowing but produce no live pigs.

A history of no vaccination programme in gilts..

Examine all afterbirths from sows carefully to see whether there are small mummified pigs present which vary in size.

Submit small mummified pigs (less than 150mm) from small litters to a laboratory for fluorescent antibody tests. These will confirm whether the foetus has died from PPV infection or not.

识别猪细小病毒感染的要点:

母猪每窝产仔数减少,并伴随不同大小的木乃伊猪。主要发生在未接种疫苗或母源抗体高时接种疫苗的后备母猪

母猪返情的比例增加

繁育母猪或单个感染的猪只没有其他疾病症状

某些后备母猪和种母猪有分娩迹象,但产死胎

在后备母猪中没有进行免疫

仔细检查母猪所产仔猪,看是否有不同大小的木乃伊胎

将来自小窝的小木乃伊胎(小于150毫米)送到实验室做荧光抗体检测。这将证实死胎是否是由于猪细小病毒引起的

 Similar diseases

类似疾病鉴别诊断

An acute outbreak could be confused with PR, PRRS, leptospirosis or certain forms of influenza but with PPV there are no other clinical signs in adult breeding stock, newborn piglets are healthy and fully active, and there are few or no abortions. It could also be confused with SMEDI due to enterovirus infection but this is uncommon and laboratory tests can differentiate them.

猪细小病毒的急性病例很容易伪狂犬病、猪呼吸与繁殖障碍综合症、猪细螺旋体或猪流感的某些型相混淆,但是猪细小病毒感染与这些病的区别在于猪细小病毒感染在成年繁育猪种没有其他任何临床症状,新生仔猪健康,母猪很少或没有流产。猪细小病毒感染也容易与肠道病毒所引起的死产、木乃伊胎儿、胚胎死亡及不育综合症相混淆, 但是这种混合感染的情况不常见,而且实验室诊断可以将二者区别开来。

Treatment

治疗

There is no treatment.

猪细小病毒感染没有治疗方法。

Management control and prevention

管理控制和预防

In an acute outbreak immediately vaccinate the breeding herd to prevent infection in those animals that are still sero-negative. Discuss with your veterinarian. Remember it will take 10 days for the first dose of vaccine to take effect.

在急性爆发猪细小病毒感染时,根据猪群的情况,在兽医指导下对血清阴性的猪进行紧急免疫。需要注意的是第一次免疫后需要10天疫苗才能发挥作用。

If a sero-negative gilt is given a single dose of vaccine, the immune system is primed and a low antibody level is produced (1:64). Vaccination and stimulation of immunity by natural infection is sufficient to protect the litter from disease. It takes 10-14 days following infection from PPV to cross the placenta and infect the embryos or foetuses. If the infected breeding female has been vaccinated at some time in the past then when exposure to PPV takes place, there is rapid re-stimulation of the immune system (within 5-7 days). This is sufficient to prevent disease and to stimulate a permanent immunity.

如果一个血清阴性的后备母猪单剂量免疫,其免疫系统被激活,并产生低水平的抗体(164),在此基础上,以后的自然感染所刺激的免疫力足以保护猪只对猪细小病毒的感染.猪细小病毒感染后要经过1014天穿过胎盘而感染胎儿。如果母猪在这之前的某个时期被免疫过,当再感染猪细小病毒时,通常在57天内,猪的免疫系统会被再次刺激,这次免疫足以预防猪细小病毒,并能够刺激猪产生终生免疫。

 

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